Tag Archives: chancellor_day SYRGUIDE Discover Syracuse

The College of Agriculture & University Farm

The Establishment of the College of Agriculture & Farm

During the early 1900’s, a College of Agriculture, and a University Farm were included among the group of colleges collectively known as Syracuse University. The college was located in what is now known as Slocum Hall and the farm existed on the land that is presently South Campus. Although the discontinuance of the college and farm was made official in 1934, the expansion of knowledge, and experimental methods practiced on this and other college farms, helped to lay the foundation for many of today’s agricultural practices, thus making it worthy of historic note.

The History

Land Grant status, government subsidies, and the Morrill Act in 1862 were largely responsible for the establishment and growth of the majority of this nations agricultural school’s. Unable to obtain any of this government funding, then Chancellor James R. Day, in 1910, using his own personal funds, purchased a 100 acre tract of land to be used as the college farm, and thereby established a program for the study of agriculture on the S.U. campus. He received strong support from Dr. William L. Bray, the Chair of the Botany Department at that time, who was instrumental in the development of the entrance requirements, course guidelines, and the building of the academic structure needed for the running of such a college. Student enrollment in the first year numbered 35 but had grown to 100 students by the 1913-14 school year. By 1918 with both public interest and enrollment continuing to increase, the Joseph Slocum College of Agriculture building was erected with funds donated by Margaret Olivia Slocum Sage. She had donated $300,000 specifically for building of the college and the school was named in memory of Margaret’s late father Joseph. During the majority of its years, enrollment numbered between 100-150 students per  year.

Historical Context & Cultural and Social Ideals 

The emergence of the first agricultural colleges in the late 1800’s was not without controversy. There were as many detractors, surrounding the inclusion of a degree in agricultural studies at the college level, as there were supporters.  Albert H. Leake states in his 1915 book The Means and Methods of Agricultural Education

“In view of the success of the colleges, it is interesting to read some of the early expressions used concerning them. The older colleges looked with considerable disfavor upon the intrusion of the institutions into what they considered their considerable domain. “A waste of public lands and private fortunes”; the dreams of amiable but visionary enthusiasts”; “another illustration of the folly of attempting to make a silk purse out of a sow’s ear”; and many others, were the expressions applied to them.  In a report presented by the Commissioner of Labor in 1893, the agricultural colleges are called “half developed colleges of agriculture and mechanics.” He places them between the trade schools and the technical colleges of university grade, giving them a very indefinite and nondescript position. The attitude was, perhaps, not hostile to the colleges but at any rate it shows that they had not yet achieved a recognized position among the educational institutions of the country.”

The Harvester: J.S.C.A Yearbook

The College of Agriculture’s student body produced and published an annual yearbook known as The Harvester, the first copy of which was published in 1923. These publications contained articles that dealt directly with the day to day activities and functions of the university’s College and farm, as well as other informational articles on various agricultural related subjects. Topics included the benefits of different seed types, useful tools, farm equipment and animal husbandry and would have been of interest to anyone involved or interested in the many facets of agriculture and farming. The yearbook was also considered a “valuable educational tool for the students as they were not only responsible for its content, but the selling of the advertisement to support it as well further enhancing their communication skills.”5

J.S.C.A. Song: Farmers song

I found this song in the filed box of documents located in the Syracuse University Archives. Although it was not authorized and i was unable to find out much more about it, it appears to be written by students of the Joseph Slocum College of Agriculture, and so I decided to include it here. This  copy of the song was included on a one page document which contained several old S.U. school songs, including Syracuse Universities Alma Mater.

1  We are the Farmers, jolly old Farmers,
We are from J.S.C.A. as you all may know.
We know the horse and cow, we know how to milk and plow,
How the deuce did we find that out? Duck told us so.

2  We are Mechanics, greasy Mechanics,
We are from J.S.C.A. as you al may know.
We know all tractors and their internal factors,
How the deuce did we find that out? “ Sib” told us so.

3  We are the Herdsman, immaculate Herdsman
We are from J.S.C.A. as you all may know,
We know the Bacterio, we know what makes it grow,
How the deuce did we find that out? Harley told us so.

4 We are the Planters, scientific Planters,
We are from J.S.C.A. as you all may know.
We know good seeds from weeds, we know just what to feed,
How the deuce did we find that out? “Herb” told us so.

5 We are the Poultrymen, incubating Poultrymen,
We are from J.S.C.A. as you all may know.
We know the Rooster O, we know what makes him crow,
How the deuce did we find that out? Lin told us so.

6 We are the Gardeners, intensive Gardeners,
We are from J.S.C.A. as you all may know.
We know all diseases and slugs, we know the control of bugs,
How the deuce did we find that out? “Shorty” told us so.

7 We are the Aggies, all kinds of Aggies,
We are from J.S.C.A. as you all may know.
We’re always sure to know just how to make things grow,
How the deuce did we find that out? Dean told us so.

Closing:

The closing of the Joseph Slocum College of Agriculture was formally announced in a letter dated May 6th 1933 by Chancellor Charles W. Flint who had succeeded James R. Day. Formal education was continued for those currently enrolled and upon their graduation in 1934 the college officially closed its doors. The farm continued to operate on a limited basis until the land was needed for housing units built for the large influx of returning World War II veterans attending Syracuse University after the war.

During its 24 years of inhabitancy, the Joseph Slocum College of Agriculture remained the only agricultural college in country that was run completely without the benefit of state or federal funding. Competition from other colleges, declining enrollment, rising labor costs, and lack of financing ultimately led to the schools closing. The disparity and allocation of state funding for colleges of both forestry and agriculture in New York State have been widely referenced to and written about. The heated competition and dispute between Syracuse and Cornell Universities was especially contentious, and the animosity between Chancellors Bailey of Cornell and Day of Syracuse was plainly apparent. As Cornell’s College of Agriculture, funded by state money grew, attendance at Syracuse University’s agricultural school began to dwindle. In Chancellor Flints letter announcing the closing of the school he explains that

” The growing tendency in higher educational circles to avoid unnecessary duplication in specialized field, and the difficulty of financing the necessary curriculum for a limited enrollment have recently  made acute the question of continuing this college in spite of its noble record of the past three years. While recognizing the significance of its work, the Board has not felt this to be sufficient to justify the duplicating in a considerable measure of the work of the State College of Agriculture at Cornell University”. 6

In the end there was somewhat of a compromise with Cornell closing it’s College of Forestry and Syracuse closing it’s College of Agriculture. Both went on to develop widely respected, highly successful colleges in their respective fields; Cornell University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and Syracuse University College of Environmental Science and Forestry.

Citations

Works Cited

 Bailey, L. H.. The training of farmers,. New York: Century, 1909. Print.

Bradley, Howard R.;The Harvester Dec. 1923

 Flint, Charles W. “ Document announcing the discontinuation of the College of Agriculture;

Office of the Chancellor, SyracuseUniversity, 6 May 1933

Images; n.d. The Harvester; SyracuseUniversity Archives Dec. 1923; 30

Leake, Albert H.. The means and methods of agricultural education,. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1915. Print.

Leavitt, Frank Mitchell. Examples of industrial education,. Boston: Ginn and company, 1912. Print.

Nye Reuben L.; What College?

The Harvester Dec. 1923; 5

SyracuseUniversityBuildings; University Farm, 2010 Web. 1 April 2013

Links

 

  1. Leake 148
  2.  
  3. The Harvester
  4.  
  5. The Harvester
  6. Flint

A History of Archbold Stadium

 

Archbold Stadium ARM 11-0124 
A postcard of the main entrance to Archbold Stadium. Copyright: Syracuse University Archives

Archbold Stadium was the first athletic stadium built at Syracuse University in Syracuse, New York. At the time of its construction it was one of only three concrete stadiums in the world and was deemed by many as “The Greatest Athletic Arena in America”. Opened in 1907, it served as a multi-purpose stadium for Syracuse University’s football, track, and field team. Archbold Stadium’s footprint is now the current location of The Syracuse University Carrier Dome. John D. Archbold looks out over the stadium he founded. Copyright: Syracuse University Archives

Construction

Construction of the stadium took place from May 1, 1905 to early 1908.  It was located at the southeast corner of Steele Hall. When it was opened on September 25, 1907, the inside of the stadium was close enough to completion to accommodate the first game’s audience, but the exterior walls were not yet finished. Blueprints of Archbold Stadium seating. Copyright: Syracuse University Archives

Syracuse Athletics

Archbold Stadium was designed from the ground up to accommodate Syracuse University’s football team, but it also hosted the track and field team who used the oval track.  On occasions, the baseball team would also use the field to practice.  During the Stadium’s 71-year lifespan, a total of 385 football games took place on the field.  The Orangemen franchise was one of the most prestigious in the country, with over 6 million spectators to witness it.  Great All-American runners like Jim Brown, Ernie Davis, Floyd Little, and Larry Csonka all were iconic athletes of the sport. 10 Ernie Davis, who wore the famous number 44, was the first African-American to win the Heisman Trophy. In 1959 Davis along with Art Baker and Gerhard Schwedes who made up what was known as the “Dream Team,” went undefeated for the season and took home the National Championship. 11 The Orangemen played some of the most regarded teams like the Ivy Leagues, Yale, Dartmouth, Brown, Columbia, and Princeton.  Thanks to the world-class facilities, Syracuse football brought in some of the most talented athletes around. 10 Syracuse University has been a major contender in the sport from Archbold’s completion to present day.

Deconstruction

As time took its toll on the stadium, it started to look like the end of days for the historic arena.  The 71 year-old arena has seen its share of Syracuse winters and its age was beginning to show. The concrete grandstand was deteriorated and was demolished and the cement had become a web of cracks and chips. The drainage system no longer functioned and flooded locker rooms were a common occurrence. The rodent problem became such a problem that visiting teams had to prepare for the games off site. The once historic icon was now becoming a nuisance and an eyesore for the University.  Over the years, upgrades have been made to the structure to increase seating capacity, which at one point reached 40,000. 13 The initial cost of the stadium was $600,000, but with all the additions and maintenance, the overall cost was over $4 million. 10 But due to new fire codes and regulations, the legal capacity for the stadium was only just over 30,000.  In 1977, the College Football Association announced that NCAA stadiums must have a capacity of at least 33,000 people in order for there to be national telecasts.  In 1977, Vice Chancellor Clifford L. Winters started planning the demolition of Archbold Stadium and the construction of a new domed arena in its place. Demolition of the old stadium started immediately after the last season home game on November 11, 1978 and was completed in March 1979.  The $27 million structure named the Carrier Dome after a $2.75 million donation from the Carrier Corporation was the 5th largest domed stadium in the country.  At 7.5 acres, it just barely covers the footprint of Archbold Stadium. 13

Works Cited

 

 

 

  1. “Syracuse University Archives: Buildings – Archbold Stadium.” Syracuse University Archives. Syracuse University Archives, n.d. Web. 07 Apr. 2013. <http://archives.syr.edu/buildings/archbold_stadium.html>.
  2.  Burton, Rick. “Archbold’s Greatest Gift.” Syracuse University Magazine 29.3 2011: Web. http://sumagazine.syr.edu/2011spring/alumnijournal/archbold.html.
  3. “A Stadium For The University.” The Post-Standard (Syracuse) 8 Mar. 1905: 1. Print.
  4.  Burton, Rick. “Archbold’s Greatest Gift.” Syracuse University Magazine 29.3 2011: Web <http://sumagazine.syr.edu/2011spring/alumnijournal/archbold.html>.
  5.  Burton, Rick. “Archbold’s Greatest Gift.” Syracuse University Magazine 29.3 (2011): Web. <http://sumagazine.syr.edu/2011spring/alumnijournal/archbold.html>.
  6.  “Syracuse University Archives: Buildings – Archbold Stadium.” Syracuse University Archives. Syracuse University Archives, n.d. Web. 07 Apr. 2013. <http://archives.syr.edu/buildings/archbold_stadium.html>.
  7. Consolidated engineering & construction company, New York. Syracuse University Stadium: Built by Consolidated Engineering & Construction Company … New York; Pictures Showing Method of Construction Accompanied by Historical And Technical Sketch. New York: Consolidated Engineering & Construction Company, 1907.
  8. “Syracuse University Archives: Buildings – Archbold Stadium.” Syracuse University Archives. Syracuse University Archives, n.d. Web. 07 Apr. 2013. <http://archives.syr.edu/buildings/archbold_stadium.html>.
  9. Consolidated engineering & construction company, New York. Syracuse University Stadium: Built by Consolidated Engineering & Construction Company … New York; Pictures Showing Method of Construction Accompanied by Historical And Technical Sketch. New York: Consolidated Engineering & Construction Company, 1907.
  10. Carroll, Tim. “Farewell, Old Friend.” The Empire Magazine Syracuse Herald-American (Syracuse) 1978: 1+. Print.
  11.  Pitoniak, Scott. Syracuse University Football. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Pub., 2003. Print.
  12. Carroll, Tim. “Farewell, Old Friend.” The Empire Magazine Syracuse Herald-American (Syracuse) 1978: 1+. Print.
  13.  Marc, David (2005) “Dome Sweet Dome,” Syracuse University Magazine: Vol. 22: Iss. 3, Article 8.
  14. Carroll, Tim. “Farewell, Old Friend.” The Empire Magazine Syracuse Herald-American (Syracuse) 1978: 1+. Print.
  15.  Marc, David (2005) “Dome Sweet Dome,” Syracuse University Magazine: Vol. 22: Iss. 3, Article 8.

Anti-Semitism at Syracuse University: Between the World Wars

 

Since its founding, Syracuse University has prided itself on tolerance. Today, the policy is taken for granted, but it was not always so easy to combat discrimination. Beginning in the early 1880s, anti-Semitic in Eastern Europe forcibly dispersed Jews into central Europe and overseas to the United States, and New York in particular. As immigrants reached American shores, many in the established Jewish elite harbored considerable concerns over the potential for a new wave of discrimination. Over the next three decades, anti-Semitism would indeed surface at all levels of American society.

Jewish adversaries bore few anxieties about the rise of African or Irish Americans to power in media, law, finance and government. These “ethnic” groups had never occupied positions of power, the vast majority living in desperate poverty. But Jews were different. They had been exiled from Eastern Europe not because of famine or slavery or crime, but specifically because they were perceived as threatening to national political systems.

To mitigate the perceived risks of Jewish dominance, doorways to affluence were targeted. The most brazen arena was the university, where Jewish enrollment quotas were imposed at many national universities, including Harvard. Rule of law, immigration policies, athletics and discrimination in social organizations (both at universities and externally) entertained anti-Semitic overtones as well.

Born in 1856 to German-Jewish immigrants, native Syracusan Louis Marshall grew up to be an infamous civil rights attorney and political activist. While defending Leo Frank, a Jewish accountant convicted of murder in Georgia, he was appointed to the Board of Trustees at Syracuse University, a position he would hold until his death in 1929. During his tenure, SU successfully avoided official enrollment quotas, though the campus was certainly not immune to the widespread anti-Semitic attitudes of the time.

Marshall was in a difficult position, hedging the interests of a variety of Jewish and non-Jewish constituencies. Jewish interests and ethics varied across the country, an obstacle Marshall often ran into. The increase in anti-Semitism that occurred after his death would cement him as a worldwide hero against discrimination. In Syracuse, his legacy lives on through his namesake,

Marshall Square Mall, located on Marshall St. was named after Louis Marshall. Courtesy of Syracuse University Archives

Marshall Square Mall, located on Marshall St. was named after Louis Marshall. Courtesy: Syracuse University Archives

 

1. Early History

By the time he was 40, Louis Marshall was among the most distinguished lawyers in the United States. His rhetorical abilities and public presence placed him in a distinctive position alongside other Jewish elites of the time. As Jewish immigration began to escalate near the turn of the century, Marshall, alongside Jacob Schiff and Cyrus Adler, introduced the Galveston Plan, an attempt to direct Jewish migrant ships to Texas in order to avoid a massive assimilation on the eastern seaboard Born in Syracuse, Louis Marshall would become the most distinguished civil rights lawyer of the early 20th century

The next twenty years of his life would be spent as the most illustrious opponent of bigotry, fastidiously attached to the growing marginalization of the world Jewry, in particular. It was a difficult position to fill. Human societies were diversifying across the globe, challenging traditionally homogenous power structures. More importantly, the scale and rapidity of immigrant integration was unprecedented, especially in the United States. Jewish immigration grew to extraordinary proportions between 1880 and the mid-1920s. Estimates suggest that roughly two million Jewish immigrants arrived during this thirty-year stretch. [11]

It is difficult to describe the societal tendencies of Jews during the early 20th century without a hint of prejudice. Krefetz (1982) explains that the skills brought from Eastern Europe, namely, “trading and exchanging, commerce, city living, property rights, … and accumulation of funds for future investment” suggest a cultural propensity for achieving financial security. By the 1980’s, Jewish families had the highest average family income of any ethnic group in the United States, a remarkable feat considering their relatively recent arrival. Louis Marshall wrote a lengthy editorial on the state of anti-Semitism in 1925. As Marshall’s death approached, he was also beginning to lose the battle at Syracuse.

Death

Barely a month before the Great Depression hit, Marshall passed away at a conference in Zurich, Switzerland.

“I am deeply grieved to learn that my friend Louis Marshall has passed,” wired President Herbert Hoover to the Jewish Telegraph Agency (NY) upon hearing of the Jewish icon’s death. “His eminent services in law, government, conciliation and philanthropy will remain of enduring value to this country.” 19. A year later, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, then the Governor of New York, designated an appropriation of over half a million dollars for to house the College of Forestry named after Marshall (Marshall Hall at SUNY-ESF still stands today) 20. At his death, Louis Marshall was among the most distinguished lawyers and political activists in the entire world.

The Syracuse Post-Standard noted that, “particularly there his effective service was given to the assurance of fair treatment of the Jewish minorities scattered thru the trouble nations of the European continent.” In his later years, Marshall had worked to secure funding for Jews in the wake of WWI. His most notable accomplishment came at the Treaty of Versailles while he was serving as the President of the American Jewish Committee. Here, he helped organize the new constitutions of Eastern Europe, which granted Jews full equality. Unfortunately, the pillars of equality that he had worked so hard to achieve would be unwound after his untimely death. 21.

 

3. 1930s

The decade that followed Marshall’s passing would see a marked rise in anti-Semitism at Syracuse University, a phenomenon he had successfully combated during his fifteen-year tenure. Jewish enrollment deteriorated and social organizations grew increasingly prejudiced.

Jewish Segregation

Beginning in the 1928-1929 academic year, Jewish students were segregated into Jewish-only dormitories. Over the next ten years, an intra-university debate raged over the policy, which was rescinded then re-enacted in 1934 and again in 1935 22.

Meanwhile, Jewish enrollment plummeted. By 1939, the freshman class had been cut to 7% from its 15% peak in 1923 23. In 1935, a year of segregated dormitories, Marty Glickman enrolled as a first-year student at Syracuse. While only eighteen years of age, he qualified for the United States Olympic team in 1936 as a sprinter for the 4x100m relay team alongside Jesse Owens and a multitude of other prolific American athletes. To his dismay, the games were to be held in Nazi Germany.

Marty Glickman Incident

Burdened by the debts of WWI and the Great Depression, Germany was among the most nationalistic – and racially obsessed – of the entire Western world. More than blacks or any other ethnic minority, German anger was directed towards Jews, as the shadow of the Holocaust reminds us. Jesse Owens and fellow African-American Ralph Metcalfe would end up running the relay in the place of Marty Glickman and Sam Stoller, Jewish sprinters from Syracuse University and the University of Michigan respectively. The pair served as the American track and field team’s only Jewish members, and had been expected to anchor the team. 24

The hostilities began just 24 hours before the 4×100 relay final. Foy Draper and Frank Wykoff, sprinters from USC, were selected to run the relay alongside gold medalists Owens and Metcalfe. After setting world records in the 100m, 200m and the long jump, most expected that Owens would hang up his spikes and watch while his teammates competed in the 4 x 100 meter relay, an event they were certain to win regardless of his participation. Either way, there was little question that Glickman and Stoller should have rounded out the team. “Draper and Wykoff…had been beaten by both Stoller and Glickman in time trials last week,” The New York Times reported in the days following the race. The motives behind Glickman and Stoller’s unseemly dismissal remain a mystery, though anti-Semitism was the obvious culprit. 25

Surprisingly, Hitler did not explicitly request the removal of Glickman and Stoller from the American 4x100m team. The Chairman of the U.S. Olympic Committee, , was a friend and sympathizer of Hitler. Brundage was the member of several committees and athletic clubs that prohibited Jewish members, a common occurrence in the era. He is more famous for his order to continue with the 1972 Munich Games after twelve Israeli athletes were executed by Islamic extremists. It should come as no surprise then, that Brundage is thought to have been responsible for Glickman and Stoller’s removal. Today, there are few historians who doubt Brundage’s motives. 26

While Glickman would blame blatant racism for the incident in the years following, his immediate reaction was less explicit. During an interview with The New York Times, Glickman charged that “politics” caused his dismissal, a result of Olympic Coach Dean Cromwell “looking out for the Southern Californians.” It was indicative of an era where anti-Semitism was largely muted and operated under the radar. 27

Glickman and Ed O’Brien, Syracuse University’s other 1936 Olympian, were asked to contribute editorials to the Daily Orange about their experiences in Berlin. Each were allocated a half-page column of about 250 words. Both students expressed anger towards the US Olympic Committee for its spontaneous removal of Glickman, with O’Brien briefly describing it as a “raw deal”. Glickman also expressed frustration and allotted an equally small segment of his column to the incident. While the event seems momentous and infuriating today, it was less significant in the moment. Neither O’Brien nor Glickman mention the anti-Semitic attitudes thought to have driven the decision. 28

Final Erosion

It became apparent that neither the administration nor the student body had interest in advocating for Jewish interests. With Marshall deceased, no Jewish figures held enough power to prevent the flirtations with anti-Semitism throughout the 1930s. A series of letters written by SU Chancellor William Graham, who served during the late 1930s and early 1940s, suggest approval of anti-Semitic media coverage. The most damning letter (January 24, 1939) expressed support for Father Charles Coughlin, who hosted an anti-Semitic radio show that would endorse Hitler and Mussolini beginning in 1936. 29

 

 

 

  1. Brawley, Edward A. “The Galveston Project.” Berman Jewish Policy Archive. New York, 2009. p. 3-25
  2. Day, James R. “Letter”. American Hebrew. Syraucse University Archives. Syracuse, NY. Apr 4. 1890
  3. Oney, Steve. And the Dead Shall Rise: The Murder of Mary Phagan and the Lynching of Leo FrankPantheon Books. New York, 2003.
  4. Watson, Thomas E. “The Jeffersonian, Volume 12, Issue 27” Thomas E. Watson Papers #755. The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 8 July 1915.
  5. Woodward, Comer Vann. Tom Watson: Agrarian RebelOxford University Press. Oxford, 1938.
  6. “Marshall Says Tom Watson is Frank’s Slayer” The New York Times. New York, 17 Aug. 1915
  7. Reznikoff, Charles ed. Louis Marshall: Champion of LibertyJewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia, 1957. p. 1157
  8. “Louis Marshall, ‘Little Giant of Jewry’ Dies in Zurich” Syracuse Herald-Journal. Syracuse University Archives, Syracuse, NY, 11 Sept 1929.
  9. Krefetz, Gerald. Jews and Money: The Myths and the Reality
  10. Gladwell, Malcolm. “Getting In.” The New Yorker. New York, 10 Oct. 2005.
  11. Strum, Harvey. “Louis Marshall and Anti-Semitism at Syracuse University.” Syracuse University Archives, Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, NY, 1983.
  12. Strum, Harvey. p. 2-8
  13. Ryback, T.W. Hitler’s Private Library: the Books that shaped his life. Knopf: New York, 2008. p. 69
  14. Woeste, Victoria. Suing Henry Ford: America’s First Hate Speech Case. American Bar Foundation: Chicago. 19 Oct. 2012, p. 2
  15.  Syracuse Herald-Journal. 11 Sept 1929.
  16. “The International Jew: The World’s Foremost Problem Chapter 12.” The Dearborn Independent, May 22 1920-January 14 1922. Dearborn Publish Co. Dearborn, MI. May 22 1920.
  17. Marshall, Louis. “Judaism – The Strength and Refuge of the Jew.” The Union Bulletin. Syracuse University Archives, Syracuse, NY. 1925.
  18.  “Anti-Semitic Scare at Syracuse University” The Union Bulletin. Syracuse University Archives, Syracuse, NY, 1925.
  19. “Hoover Lauds Marshall as Man of Value.” The New York Times. Syracuse University Archives. Syracuse, NY, 12 Sept. 1929.
  20. “Roosevelt Asks $600,00 Forestry Building At Syracuse University as Memorial to Marshall.” The New York Times. New York Times Archives. 12 Jan. 1930.
  21. “Louis Marshall, Great Leader of Jews, Native of Syracuse, Was Lawyer Here Until 1894.” The Syracuse Post-Standard. Syracuse University Archives, Syracuse, NY, 12 Sept. 1929.
  22. Strum, p. 8-9
  23. Strum. p. 9-10
  24. Glickman, Marty. Fastest Kid on the Block: The Marty Glickman Story. Syracuse University Press. Syracuse, NY. 1996. p. 17-18.
  25. Associated Press. “Stoller Declares He Wil Quit Track.” The New York Times. New York Times Archives. 9 Aug. 1936.
  26. Guttman, Allen. “The Games Must Go On: Avery Brundage and the Olympic Movement.” Columbia University Press. New York. 1984. p. 250-252
  27. Associated Press. “Stoller Declares He Will Quit Track.” The New York Times. New York Times Archives. New York, Aug 9. 1936
  28. Glickman, Marty and O’Brien, Ed. “Syracuse’s Olympians Relate First-Hand Relate First Hand Stories.” The Daily Orange. Syracuse University Archives. Syracuse, NY, Sept 1936.
  29. “William Graham to Frank Harrington” W. Freeman Galpin Papers, Syracuse University Archives.  Jan 24. 1939.